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博碩士論文: 客家電影《一八九五》在不同族群青少年閱聽人下的解讀研究=Audience Research of Hakka Film《1895》

  • 作者:黃如鎂(Huang,Ju-Mei)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:張玉佩(Chang,Yu-Pei)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立交通大學
  • 系所名稱:客家文化學院客家社會與文化碩士在職專班
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:111
    • 主題:客家圖書-作品單篇
    • 關鍵詞:詮釋社群、客家電影、青少年閱聽人、英雄歷程、族群、Interpretive community、Hakka film、Teenage audience、Hero journey、Ethnic group
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    《一八九五》敘述18世紀臺灣客家先民自主組織家丁,抵抗日本接收的歷史。大歷史洪流下,小人物的無奈、刻苦辛酸和悲情是客家電影一貫的敘事內容和情感基調,加以客語發音、客家文學改編劇本,成為足具代表性的客家電影。上映期間政治人物強力站臺、客委會出資背景以及「客家三傑」的議題設定,影片以型塑客家英雄及他者族群的襯托,進行造神運動,以達反「客」為尊的目的。並藉影像再現強化客家抗日歷史事件,再創光榮的客家集體記憶,拉抬客家形象,對閱聽大眾進行宣傳與說服。《一八九五》作為客家形象營造、宣傳、行銷的工具性用途可見一斑。閱聽人對由上而下的新世代政宣電影,呈現多義的互文解讀,並因所屬族群的不同而有差異。
    本研究挑選16位不同族群的受訪者,分客家族群組8人及非客家族群組8人的兩組詮釋社群進行訪談,了解當下閱聽人的接收解讀狀況。研究發現,客家組面對客家忠勇節義意旨、客語的公領域呈現等,持嚴苛的負面思考,非客家組觀感反而較正面。另外影片各族群角色位階的解釋、與傳統習俗的集體經驗互異;而幼時的母愛經驗、客家刻板印象等相同,且均不重視國族、政治及族群議題。詮釋內容顯示,能勾動閱聽人情感,發揮傳播效果的必是貼近閱聽人日常生活經驗的片段,過於遙遠的歷史時空與壯烈悲情,在訊息多義混雜的當下,會因較難理解,無法融入閱聽人生命經驗而被忽略。茲以研究結果,提供相關單位做日後族群溝通政策時的參考。
    The film《1895》describes the historical events of Hakka people in early 18 century. Hakka formed their own resistant group to fight against the Japanese colonization of Taiwan. In the time of chaos, people’s helplessness, difficulties and sorrow have become common expressions of how Hakka movie creators characterize the emotions and life styles of Hakkanese. With authentic Hakka pronunciation and literary background,《1895》has become one representative film in Hakka culture and has been greatly praised by audiences since its distribution. The agenda-setting of “Three Hakka Braves” in this movie was sponsored and routed by CHA (Council for Hakka Affairs). In film, the braves lead their people to protect their homeland. Along with many Hakka warriors, they bravely assemble arm in arm with other groups to fight against the Japan troops. Eventually they sacrifice themselves in the battles. Representation like this creates collective memory and promotes positive Hakka images. The attempt of promoting Hakka image to public can be read through 《1895》. Polysemous intertextuality has emerged from audience’s reaction to this epochal propaganda film, which is varied from every individual’s different cultural and ethnic background.
    This research had interviewed 16 candidates from different ethnic groups. To understand how audiences react to this film, respectively 8 Hakkanese and 8 non Hakkanese were chosen as interpretive community to take the interview. The results have revealed that Hakka candidates showed stony and less positive impression about Hakkanese’s dignity and dialect use in the public sphere. The non-Hakka side; on the contrary, has shown more interest and positive view on Hakka people’s character and language. This indicates that candidates from different ethnic background have diverse perspectives on group’s orientations, customs and experiences in the film. Another understanding picked up from the interview was that both sides were sharing the consensus when it came to the issues about mother’s love in the childhood and Hakka stereotypes, but they were significantly less concerned with the national, political and ethnical issues. The candidate’s conclusions on the film have suggested that because of audience’s polysemous mentalities, their feedback to the ancestor’s sacrifice for the motherland becomes oblique. On the other hand, scenes that were close to audience’s daily life are more likely to strike people’s heart. By presenting this research, I expected it can provide academic reference for government organizations to map out the ethnic policy afterwards.

    目錄:

    第一章 研究背景 1
    第二章 客家電影與台灣史識 6
    第一節 客家電影 6
    第二節 臺灣史識:《一八九五》時代背景 17
    第三節 客家英雄重返榮耀 20
    第三章 研究方法 31
    第一節 研究目的與研究問題 31
    第二節 研究方法 32
    第三節 研究步驟 34
    第四章 《一八九五》的青春領略 42
    第一節 客家軍:勇敢或魯莽 43
    第二節 語言、生活與權力關係 49
    第三節 客家意象形塑與詮釋 63
    第五章 《一八九五》和日常生活 78
    第一節 貼身的母親和缺席的父親 79
    第二節 學長v.s吳湯興:《一八九五》的跨媒介互文 83
    第三節 交錯的文化、族群、擋不住流動的邊界 89
    第六章 結論 94
    第一節 不同詮釋社群的解讀:客家V.S非客家 95
    第二節 影響閱聽人解讀的因素 101
    第三節 研究檢討與建議 104
    參考資料 106