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博碩士論文: 客語生活學校施行客家歌謠教學之個案研究=A Case Study of Teaching Hakka Songs in a Hakka Living School

  • 作者:張哲榕(CHANG, CHE-JUNG)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:陳曉雰(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立臺灣師範大學
  • 系所名稱:音樂學系
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2006
  • 畢業學年度:94
  • 頁數:147
    • 主題:客家聲音紀錄-客家音樂
    • 關鍵詞:多元文化音樂教育、客語生活學校、客家歌謠、客家歌謠教學、Hakka livivg school、multicultural music education、Hakka songs、Hakka songs teaching
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    二十世紀中葉開始,多元文化主義的思想在國外因移民與族群問題興起。台灣自1987年政治解嚴之後,本土意識復甦,開始正視不同族群之語言與文化。因應多元文化教育的實施,台灣各族群文化在音樂教育中也逐漸受到重視。
    歌唱是音樂教學中重要的項目,也是落實多元文化音樂教育不可或缺的活動。客家是台灣的族群之一,客家歌謠是客家文化獨特的資產。因此,本研究遂以探討客家歌謠教學實施多元文化教育為目的。
    本研究採個案研究,以客語生活學校之春景國小(化名)為研究對象。首先藉由文獻探討了解多元文化音樂教育與客家歌謠之意涵,接著參與客家語言班與客語歌謠班一學期(2/14/2005~6/28/2005)之觀察,並訪談該校任課老師及教務主任。根據資料分析,歸納出以下結論:
    一、多元文化音樂教育之意涵
    多元文化教育以達到公平受教與尊重他人為目標;多元文化音樂教育藉由音樂欣賞、演唱演奏與統整課程等方式,讓學生欣賞、尊重與包容不同之文化。台灣多元文化音樂教育始於民歌採集運動,解嚴後對不同歌曲的選擇在音樂課程綱要中漸趨明顯。
    二、客家歌謠之意涵
    客家歌謠的內容繁雜,有「九腔十八調之稱」,依曲調可分成老山歌、山歌子、平板與小調等四類;客家歌謠在演唱、歌詞、曲式與調式上,具有特殊之藝術性。
    三、客語生活學校施行客語歌謠教學之背景
    客語生活學校之實施需要政府政策與教育政策之配合,如客委會提供經費補助,辦理客家歌謠教學與九年一貫課程鄉土語言之實施;另外,客家歌謠教學也需要學校行政配合。
    四、客語生活學校施行客家歌謠教學之方式
    客家語言班教師施行歌謠教學之理念為引起學習動機、讓學生容易學習與營造學習環境,其教材與課程設計活潑;客語歌謠班教師之教學理念為自然、生活化與結合奧福律動之教學,其教材與課程設計具多樣性。歌謠班學習成效良好,對學校、教師與學生皆有正面影響。
    Multiculturalism rose from immigration and ethnic problems in the middle of the twentieth century. In Taiwan, native consciousness began to revive and Taiwan started to pay serious attention to the cultural and racial differences among its many ethnic groups after the emancipation of Martial Laws in 1987. In response to the application of multicultural education, Taiwan has been working gradually to incorporate different ethnic cultures in music education.
    Singing is an important strategy in music instruction and an essential activity to implement multicultural music education. Hakka is one ethnic group in Taiwan, and Hakka songs are unique property of Hakka culture. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate Hakka songs teaching.
    A case study was used in this study, and the researcher selected Chwen-Ching Elementary School (pseudonym) which is the Hakka Living School as the research subject. This study was conducted through three phases: first, the researcher reviewed related literature to understand the meaning of multicultural music education and Hakka songs. Secondly, the researcher observed one Hakka language class and one Hakka songs class for one semester (2/14/2005~6/28/2005). Thirdly, the researcher interviewed two instructors and the Dean of Academic Affairs. After analysis and discussion in accordance with the collected data, the researcher concluded as follows:

    I. The meaning of multicultural music education
    The goal of multicultural education is to attain equal education and to respect others. Multicultural music education is implemented through music appreciation, singing and playing, and curriculum integration to enable students to appreciate, to respect and to tolerate different cultures. The “Gathering of Folk Songs Movement” is considered the beginning of multicultural music education in Taiwan. Not until the emancipation of Martial Laws did Taiwan start to include songs of various cultures in music curriculum.

    II. The meanings of Hakka songs
    Hakka songs are well known as their various contents called “ 9 tones and 18 accents”;
    Hakka songs are divided into “old mountain songs,” “mountain songs,” “flat-tone songs,” and
    “other songs,” according to their traditional tunes; Hakka songs are unique and beautiful in
    their art styles.

    III. The background of teaching Hakka songs in a Hakka living school
    Hakka living school has to operate in coordination with government and educational policies, and the teaching of Hakka songs has to receive support from school administration.

    IV. The approach to teaching Hakka songs in a Hakka living school
    The philosophy of teaching Hakka songs in Hakka language courses is to evoke students’ study motivation, to facilitate language study, and to build study environment. The curriculum design is active and the teaching materials are various.
    The philosophy in Hakka songs class is learning through natural and realistic approaches combined with the Orff approach. The teaching materials and curriculum design are diversified, and students have high achievements in Hakka songs class. The implementation of Hakka songs has a positive impact on school, teachers, and students.

    目錄:

    第一章 緒論...............................................1
    第一節 研究背景...........................................1
    第二節 研究目的...........................................7
    第三節 待答問題...........................................8
    第四節 名詞釋義...........................................9
    第五節 研究範圍與限制....................................11

    第二章 文獻探討..........................................13
    第一節 多元文化教育......................................13
    第二節 多元文化音樂教育..................................32
    第三節 客家歌謠..........................................42
    第四節 客家歌謠文獻分析..................................56

    第三章 研究設計..........................................63
    第一節 研究對象..........................................63
    第二節 研究方法..........................................64
    第三節 研究工具..........................................67
    第四節 研就流程..........................................68
    第五節 資料處理與分析....................................69
    第六節 研究信度與效度....................................71

    第四章 結果與討論........................................73
    第一節 春景國小概況與客語生活學校........................73
    第二節 鄉土語言班........................................85
    第三節 客語歌謠班........................................96
    第四節 綜合討論.........................................110

    第五章 結論與建議.......................................121
    第一節 結論.............................................121
    第二節 建議.............................................127

    參考書目................................................131
    中文部分................................................131
    外文部分................................................137

    附錄....................................................141
    附錄一..................................................142
    附錄二..................................................143
    附錄三..................................................144
    附錄四..................................................145
    附錄五..................................................146
    附錄六..................................................147