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博碩士論文: 媒體再現客家館與閱聽人解讀之研究=Media Representation of Hakka Culture Museums and Audience Reception

  • 作者:董季蓁(Chi-chen Tung)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:盧嵐蘭(Lan-lan Lu)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立聯合大學
  • 系所名稱:經濟與社會研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2010
  • 畢業學年度:98
  • 頁數:153
    • 主題:客家圖書-作品單篇
    • 關鍵詞:媒體、再現、客家、形象、接收分析、Media、Representation、Hakka、Image、Reception A
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    本研究旨在探討新聞再現客家館的形象以及閱聽人的接收,首先統計歷年來客家館新聞的報導數量與發展趨勢,以文本分析探討國內新聞媒體對客家館的報導情形與形象建構,另從深度訪談分析民眾如何解讀客家館相關新聞。
    本研究以《中國時報》、《聯合報》、《自由時報》和《蘋果日報》為研究對象分析1994年至2008年間的客家館新聞共1880則,從中歸納出客家館新聞主要的報導主題有11項,分別為:「人力」、「參觀資訊」、「設備」、「學術研究」、「鄰近區域」、「空間配置」、「展示典藏品」、「參觀情況」、「籌建狀況」、「活動」、「其他」等,其中報導類型最多的前三項為「籌建狀況」、「活動」和「鄰近區域」;客家館新聞的報導方向以中性報導居多,其次為正向報導,負向報導最少。
    文本分析發現報紙再現的客家館形象有如下幾項:(1)以客家元素呈現客家館空間意象;(2)客家館活動以「客家」和「地方」為主題;(3)客家館與地方發展有關;(4)客家館營運定位不明與資源(財力、人力)缺乏。
    受訪者對客家館新聞的接收與解讀有下列三項特質:(1)觀眾與館方的認知差異;(2)聯繫相關經驗的解讀;與(3)直接表達建議。受訪者從解讀客家館新聞而發展的客家館形象主要包括:(1)具有客家意象的建築風格,但缺乏明確的動線設計與多元的展示設計;(2)受訪者認為展品具有懷舊與傳承的意義,但是展品不夠豐富,相似度高,也沒有受到良好的保存;(3)缺乏專業的導覽解說人員;(4)應以活動活絡館舍,同時發揚客家文化並建立地方關係;(5)客家館觀眾不多,且有年齡有偏高的傾向,另應提昇觀眾素養。
    至於「蚊子館」新聞部分,媒體呈現客家館變成「蚊子館」的原因有如下:(1)乏味的靜態展示;(2)典藏品數量與內容皆不足;(3)工程進度停滯、閒置且乏人照料;(4)地點偏僻、交通不便;(5)與地方關係疏離。而受訪者解讀的原因有:(1)缺乏行銷;(2)一成不變的典藏品;(3)服務人員態度不夠親切;(4)地點偏僻、無觀光景點連結;(5)館舍功能與使用率欠佳。
    本研究提出客家館往後在籌建與營運上的幾個思考方向。首先於內部的營運應強調或有如下的調整:(1)發展成具有特色的客家館;(2)加強館藏內容;(3)「維護」展品的價值;(4)多元化的展示設計;(5)培訓專業的導覽解說人員;(6)開發更廣大的觀眾和(7)提高客家館的使用功能。至於客家館外部,則應強調或有如下的發展:(1)改善交通狀況;(2)保持良好的地方關係與(3)運用周邊觀光景點創造加乘效果。
    The main purpose of this research is to explore the image of Hakka Culture Museums and reception of audience in news representation. First of all, we collect the coverage of Hakka Culture Museums as well as its development trend over the past years. Through the analysis of this research, we explore the reports of Hakka Culture Museums and its image construction by Taiwan’s news media. Besides, by using in-depth interview analysis, we know how audience interpret the news for Hakka Culture Museums.
    The main subjects of this research include China Times, United Daily News, The Liberty News, and Apple Daily News, analyzing news for Hakka Culture Museums totally 1880 from 1994 to 2008. In this research, we find out that 11 subjects are included in Hakka Culture Museums reports, including manpower, visiting information, equipment, academic research, neighboring area, space display, fine collection exhibition, visiting situation, preparation status, and others etc. Among all these subjects, the top three are preparation status, activity, and neighboring area. Among these news, neutral ones are at the most, positive ones get second, and negative ones are at the least.
    In this research, we find out that the image of Hakka Culture Museums from news representation can be classified into following categories: firstly, Hakka Culture Museums uses Hakka elements to display Hakka space imaginary. Secondly, it uses Hakka Culture Museums activities, Hakka, and place as subject. Thirdly, Hakka Culture Museums and local development are co-related. Fourthly, Hakka Culture Museums lacks of financial resources and manpower leading to vague operation positioning.
    Moreover, about the understanding and reception of interviewees toward Hakka Culture Museums can be concluded into three categories: firstly, differences exit between public and Culture Museums itself. Secondly, the understanding of interviewees link to their relative experiences. Thirdly, suggestions are directly conveyed to public for Hakka Culture Museums. From the understanding of interviewees to Hakka Culture Museums news, the image of Hakka Culture Museums is developed as follow: firstly, Hakka Culture Museums are full of Hakka imaginary but lack of route design as well as diversified exhibition. Secondly, the exhibitions in Hakka Culture Museums cherish the past with the meaning of passing down. However, they are short of amount, differentiation, and well-protection. Thirdly, Hakka Culture Museums lacks of professional docents. Fourthly, Hakka events should be used to promote the Culture Museums as well as develop Hakka culture and its local relation. Lastly, visitors in Hakka Culture Museums are relatively rare and with high age range. The quality of visitors in Hakka Culture Museums should be raised.
    According to the news describing Hakka Culture Museums as ‘mosquito pavilions’ are concluded as following reasons: firstly, the exhibition is dull and motionless. Secondly, the quantity and quality of collections is weak. Thirdly, construction process of Hakka Culture Museums is delay, idle, and being careless. Fourthly, the place is out-of-way with inconvenient traffic condition. Fifthly, Hakka Culture Museums lacks of local relation. From public’s understanding, they consider Hakka Culture Museums as ‘mosquito pavilion’ is due to its lacking marketing strategies, unchanging collections, unfriendly services, out-of-way traffic condition with no connections to other scenic spots, and inefficiency usage for Culture Museums.
    Last, we offer some suggestions as future directions for building and operating Hakka Culture Museums. First of all, the internal operation of Hakka Culture Museums can put more emphasis on, firstly, turning Hakka Culture Museums to become more characteristic. Secondly, enhance collection quantities in Hakka Culture Museums. Thirdly, maintain the value of exhibition collections. Fourthly, diversify exhibition design. Fifthly, increase more skillful docents. Sixthly, widen and attract more audience. Seventhly, improve the usage functions of Hakka Culture Museums. Moreover, for the external section of Hakka Culture Museums, it can pay attention on improving the traffic condition near around, building and maintaining good local relation, and using the scenic spots in the vicinity to create synergy effect for Hakka Culture Museums.

    目錄:

    第一章 緒論 1
    第一節 研究背景與動機 1
    第二節 研究目的 3
    第三節 研究步驟 4
    第二章 文獻探討 6
    第一節 媒體再現與客家形象 6
    第二節 接收分析與解讀型態 12
    第三節 客家館的發展及其經營概況 16
    第四節 研究架構與研究問題 28
    第三章 研究設計 30
    第一節 研究方法 30
    第二節 研究對象 36
    第四章 媒體報導客家館的趨勢與類型 40
    第一節 報紙中的客家館新聞 40
    第二節 報紙中的客家「蚊子館」新聞 55
    第五章 媒體再現客家館 59
    第一節 媒體建構的客家館形象 59
    第二節 媒體建構客家館的「蚊子館」形象 78
    第六章 閱聽人解讀客家館新聞與形象建構 85
    第一節 閱聽人解讀媒體報導中的客家館 85
    第二節 閱聽人解讀媒體報導中的客家「蚊子館」 102
    第七章 結論與建議 108
    第一節 研究發現與結論 108
    第二節 檢討與未來研究建議 119
    參考文獻 122
    附錄1 台灣各地區分佈的客家館報導數量與百分比(1994-2008年) 134
    附錄2 客家館新聞報導主題之逐年報導方向次數與百分比 135
    附錄3 四大報之客家館新聞逐年報導方向次數與百分比 147
    附錄4 四大報之客家「蚊子館」新聞逐年報導方向次數與百分比 151
    圖表目錄
    圖2-1:研究架構 28
    表2-1:報紙再現的客家意象 11
    表2-2:閱聽人的主要解讀型態 16
    表2-3:台灣客家館歷年設置數量 18
    表2-4:台灣客家館分佈概況 19
    表2-5:各國博物館組織對「博物館」的定義 22
    表3-1:四大報客家館新聞則數 31
    表3-2:客家館新聞報導主題 32
    表3-3:一般受訪者訪談大綱 35
    表3-4:客家館館方受訪者訪談大綱 36
    表3-5:一般受訪者訪談與基本背景資料 37
    表3-6:館方受訪者訪談與基本背景資料 39
    表4-1:客家館新聞各年份四大報報導數量 41
    表4-2:客家館新聞報導方向 42
    表4-3:客家館新聞報導方向逐年比例 43
    表4-4:客家人口數、客家館數量與報導數量比較 44
    表4-5:客家館新聞報導主題 45
    表4-6:客家館人力報導數量與百分比 45
    表4-7:客家館參觀資訊報導數量與百分比 45
    表4-8:客家館設備報導數量與百分比 46
    表4-9:客家館學術研究報導數量與百分比 46
    表4-10:客家館鄰近區域報導數量與百分比 47
    表4-11:客家館空間配報導數量與百分比 48
    表4-12:客家館展示典藏品報導數量與百分比 49
    表4-13:客家館參觀情況報導數量與百分比 50
    表4-14:客家館籌建狀況報導數量與百分比 51
    表4-15:客家館活動報導數量與百分比 52
    表4-16:報導中的客家館活動與客家文化的關係 53
    表4-17:客家館其他報導數量與百分比 53
    表4-18:「蚊子館」新聞報導則數與百分比 56
    表4-19:各報「蚊子館」新聞報導則數與百分比 56