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博碩士論文: 客家山歌歌詞研究 : 以數字為句首的山歌為例

  • 作者:王雅筑(Ya-ju wang)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:羅肇錦(Seo-Gim Lo)(陳秀琪)(Siu-Ki Chen)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:國立中央大學
  • 系所名稱:客家政治經濟與政策研究所在職碩士專班
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2009
  • 畢業學年度:97
  • 頁數:249
    • 主題:語言-其他
    • 關鍵詞:山歌、以數字為句首的山歌、四縣腔客家話、畬族語言、Mountain Songs、Mountain Songs with Numeral Sentence-initial、Si-Xian Accent Hakka、She Clan Language
    • 國家:臺灣

    摘要:

    我們生活的環境,由農業社會轉型到工商業社會,進而到「e化」社會。傳統活躍於田野、農村、山崗的山歌,已消失於無形,客家先民感觸敏銳、思路如泉湧、隨口隨鬥的活潑演唱畫面已不復見,傳統山歌的發展被迫趨於僵化、邊緣化。面對此種無奈的演變事實,探討傳統山歌歌詞所蘊涵的時代背景及文化意義,就更顯迫切。
    本研究,主要以苗栗縣退休教師劉鈞章蒐集的1016首以數字為句首的山歌為研究範圍。以文獻分析法與內容分析法,對山歌歌詞內容進行調查、分類與分析。以瞭解早期客家人的生活,數詞對客家人的文化意涵,闡明山歌曲調旋律與山歌歌詞聲調對應的必然性,還原山歌歌詞特殊客語詞彙的原意及其背後深層的文化意涵,及透過客家山歌與畬族山歌歌詞的分析比較,探討客家山歌的起源。
    本研究証明了兩個論點:(1)情歌在本研究山歌語料中占65.5%,是所有類別中比例最高的,印証了多位學者的論點:客家山歌中,情歌占大宗。(2)透過山歌譜例和歌詞四縣腔客語聲調的調值做對照,佐以山歌旋律和歌詞四縣腔客語聲調調值的曲線圖比較,两者的曲線發展幾乎是一致或平行的。証明了山歌旋律的變化,直接依附於客家語言聲調的抑揚頓挫;証明了客家山歌在音樂上的特色是「語言與音樂完全結合」、「字調與歌調合一」。也証明台灣客家山歌沿襲松口客家山歌,是以四縣腔客語演唱的。
    本研究發現,無論從正板山歌、敍事山歌或古歌三個面向分析,客家
    與畬族兩者山歌的內容、形式圴大同小異,而畬族三類山歌出現的年代都
    比客家山歌早。所以客家山歌的起源應該和畬族有密切的關係。
    Our living environment has transformed from agricultural society into an industrialized and commercial society, or further into the “electronic” society nowadays. Traditional mountain songs that used to be popularized at fields, rural villages and hills have disappeared, and the image of Hakka ancestors’ sensitive feeling, emerging thinking and lively singing with extemporization can no longer be seen again. The development of traditional mountain songs has forced to tend to become rigidity and marginalization. However, faced with these helpless facts that turned into today, the study on the historical background and cultural significance that implicated in the lyrics of traditional mountain songs has showed its urgency then.
    This study has mainly took those 1016 mountain songs with numeral sentence-initial that collected by Mr. Jun-chang Liu, a retired teacher in Miaoli County, as the scope of research. Then, literature review and content analysis methods are adopted to carry out the survey, classification and analysis on the lyrics of mountain songs in order to understand the early life and cultural connotation of numerals for Hakka people; in addition, made explanation for the certainty of harmonization between the tune and melody for mountain songs and their tone and lyrics in order to restore the original intention of the special Hakka wording for the lyrics of mountain songs and the in-depth cultural connotation behind them. Moreover, this study has also explored the origin of Hakka mountain songs through making the comparison of the lyrics analysis between Hakka and She Clan mountain songs.
    This study has proved these 2 following contentions: (1) Long songs have accounted about 65.5% of the total mountain songs material in this study, which is the classification with the highest rate, and has also approved the contention of many scholars: Love songs are the majority of Hakka mountain songs. (2) Through the comparison between the sample score of mountain songs and the tone pitch of Si-Xian (4-county) accent Hakka lyrics, and accompanied with the comparing curve between the melody of mountain songs and the tone pitch of Si-Xian (4-county) accent Hakka lyrics, the result revealed that both curves were consistent or parallel, and proved that the melody change in mountain songs will be depended on cadence for the tone of Hakka language; furthermore, such outcome has also approved the musical characteristics of Hakka mountain songs are “completely combination of language and music” and “combination of character and song tones”. In addition, this study has also proved that Taiwan Hakka mountain songs have followed the Song Ko Hakka mountain songs with using the Si-Xian (4-county) accent Hakka language to sing.
    At last, this study has discovered that regardless of 4-sentence, narrative or ancient mountain songs, the She Clan mountain songs were earlier than Hakka mountain songs; therefore, the origin of Hakka mountain songs shall have a significant correlation with She Clan.

    目錄:

    中文摘要 i
    ABSTRACT ii
    誌謝辭 iv
    圖 目 錄 iii
    表 目 錄 iv
    第一章 緒論 1
    第一節 研究動機與目的 1
    第二節 研究問題、範圍與限制 5
    第三節 研究方法 7
    第二章 名詞釋義與文獻回顧 11
    第一節 名詞釋義 11
    第二節 相關文獻回顧 15
    第三章 山歌歌詞內容反映早期客家人生活 21
    第一節 山歌歌詞的分類 21
    第二節 由山歌歌詞內容探討客家人生活 25
    第四章 客家山歌的結構與韻律 37
    第一節 客家山歌的章法 37
    第二節 客家山歌的句式 46
    第三節 客家山歌旋律與歌詞聲調的關係 53
    第五章 山歌歌詞之數詞分析 69
    第一節 數詞 69
    第二節 漢民族與客語數詞的文化意涵 81
    第六章 客家山歌所呈現之婦女文化 97
    第一節 山歌中婦女在家庭的角色 98
    第二節 山歌反映的客家婦女形象 111
    第三節 客家山歌中反映的情愛 119
    第七章 山歌歌詞特殊詞彙的文化意涵 137
    第一節 婦女有關的特殊詞彙分析與文化意涵 138
    第二節 有關男性特殊詞彙分析與文化意涵 152
    第三節 其他客家特殊詞彙分析與文化意涵 158
    第八章 從客家山歌與畬族山歌歌詞探討客家山歌起源 163
    第一節 客家與畬族 163
    第二節 客家山歌與畬族山歌分析比較 169
    第九章 結論與建議 187
    第一節 研究結論 187
    第二節 建議 195
    參考書目 197
    附錄 207