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博碩士論文: 臺南楠西地區江姓宗族發展歷程研究=Study in the Developmental Process of Jiang's Lineage in Nanxi Township, Tainan County

  • 作者:劉兆書(CHAO-SHU LIU)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:吳中杰(CHONG-CHIEH WU)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:高雄師範大學 
  • 系所名稱:客家文化研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2009
  • 畢業學年度:97
  • 頁數:116
      • 關鍵詞:福佬客、詔安客、楠西、家族史、Hoklo Hakka、Zhaoan Hak、Nanxi、Family history
      • 國家:臺灣
      • 城市:台南縣
      • 地點:楠西鄉

      摘要:

      隨著近年來客家運動的興起,客家研究逐漸成為風潮,雲嘉南地區素來是客家研究中,最少被提及的地方,尤其以台南為最。近年來本區域逐漸受到重視,偶有一些相關研究論及本區,但是比起桃竹苗或是南部六堆地區,無論是質與量仍是遠遠不及。
      台南縣楠西鄉位於台南縣東北端,地處阿里山山脈尾稜,原為鄒族活動之地,後來遭到西拉雅人大武壟社群之驅趕,避走他鄉。明鄭以後陸續有漢人遷入,時至今日,楠西變成一個以漢人為主體的社會。兩百多年後的今天,這群客家早就放棄了原先的語言,而使用福佬語,最後根本不知道自身的客屬身份,這群失落的客家人,林衡道在1963年發表的〈員林附近的福佬客村落〉一文中將其稱為「福佬客」,後來的研究者也多沿用此一稱呼。吳中杰(1998)曾提及楠西鹿陶洋江家是福建漳州詔安客屬,然而江姓乃是楠西數一數二大姓,分布範圍除了楠西甚至達到鄰近的玉井街上。前人的研究雖有提及附近區域的江姓其實是有相當多不同系統的,卻沒有仔細去研究究竟這塊地方有多少系統的江姓,以及他們究竟是屬於哪些不同的系統。
      本研究之範圍為台南縣楠西與鄰近的玉井兩鄉,江姓宗族分佈區域為研究範圍,行政區包含楠西鄉楠西村、鹿田村,以及玉井鄉竹圍村、玉井村等村落。研究方法採用文獻回顧法與參與觀察法,透過前人的文獻蒐集相關資訊,進一步實地訪查,與當地居民晤談,並且收集族譜等文書,也親身參與相關的宗族祭祀活動,以求對這些宗族有完整與清晰的了解。
      本研究將從江姓得姓說起,談到江姓入閩的經過,再談到繁衍到福建詔安的情形。接著拉到台灣,從北至南將全台灣江姓分佈做一簡單描述,並分析其祖籍與系統,藉此瞭解楠西地區江姓福佬客現象是否屬單一現象,還是普遍情形。接著談到六桂世系源流,論述六桂堂各姓氏的源流發展。接下來談到楠西地區江姓宗族渡台後,在台灣如何開枝散葉、落地生根,條列式的說明這塊區域究的江姓,究竟有哪幾種系統,他們到底是福佬底還是客底,並一一分析他們移墾的經過、來台後發展歷程、如何維生、聚落發展與變遷,以及彼此之間的互動與聯繫。另外從文化面的角度(建築、信仰等)談論江家在地化過程產生的一些變化,是否仍保留住一些客家文化,或是全數消失。
      With the rise and development in Hakka movements in recent years, Hakka studies become the current trend in research. Among various Hakka regions, Yunlin-Jiayi-Tainan area (雲嘉南地區)-Tainan in particular- was barely focused in Hakka studies. Lately, the area of Tainan received Hakka researchers’ attention to a progressively increasing extent. Compared with Hakka research investigated in Taoyuan, Hsinchu, Miaoli (桃竹苗地區), and Liu Dui (六堆) in Kaohsiung and Pingtung, Hakka research of Tainan falls far behind in terms of quality and quantity.
      Nanxi, northeastern part of Tainan County (台南縣楠西鄉), is situated at the southern edge of the Alis (阿里山山脈), which was the homeland of Tsou (鄒族). Later on, the Tsou people were expelled by Taivoran of Siraya (西拉雅大武壟社群) and sheltered themselves in alien residency. After dynasties of Ming and Chang, the Hakka people migrated into this place one after another. To date, Nanxi (台南縣楠西鄉) has already turned into a society centered on the Han people.
      More than 200 years past, this Hakka folk gave up their original language, but speak Hoklo (福佬語) by this time. In the end, they are not aware of their Hakka origin. Hoklo Hakkas (福佬客), the lost Hakka folk, was first mentioned in Lin (1963)’s article (員林附近的福佬客村落). Subsequently, researchers of Hakka follow Lin’s lead and continually use this term. Wu (1998) ascertained that the Jiang clan in Lutaoyang, Nanxi (楠西鹿陶洋江家) originated from the Hakka folk in Zhaoan, Zhangzhou in Fujian (福建漳州詔安客屬). Considered one of the hugest clans, the Jiang clan in Nanxi spread its distribution to downtown Yujing (玉井街) in the neighborhood. Previous research pointed out that the Jiang clan in the neighborhood may descend from a diversity of clan systems, but the exact number of the Jiang clan systems in Nanxi and the actual lineage patterns that different Jiang clans derive from have never been carefully examined.
      The present study is mainly conducted in Nanxi and Yujing of Tainan County (台南縣楠西鄉和玉井鄉), the main distribution of the Jiang clan. Administratively, the Jaing family is located in Nanxi and Lutian in Nanxi (楠西鄉楠西村與鹿田村), and Yujing and Zhuwei in Yujing (玉井鄉玉井村及竹圍村). The methodology of the study involves both documentary historical method (文獻回顧法) and participant observation (參與觀察法). In addition to literature review of previous studies, field research, genealogy of various clans, and interview of local residents, we participated in relevant clan rituals in order to reach a complete and crystal clear understanding towards those local clans.
      The research starts with the origin of the Jiang clan, then discusses the process how this family clan went into Fujian, and talks about their outgrowth in Zhaoan, Fujian (福建詔安). Hopefully, through the distribution of the Jiang clan throughout Taiwan and analysis of the ancestral land and their linkage patterns, we are getting to know whether the Hoklo Hakkas of the Jiang family (江姓福佬客現象) is an individual characteristic of Nanxi, or this phenomenon of the Hoklo Hakka is widely extended in villages of Hakka ancestry. In addition, the ramifications of Liugui descent (六桂世系源流) are elaborated.
      The concern in the present study is the development of the Jiang linkage in Nanxi after their ancestors crossed over to Taiwan. The linkage patterns of the Jiang family in Nanxi will be demonstrated by means of graphs. We will look into their ancestral nature—Hoklos or Hakkas and analyze the ins and outs of the process that the ancestors migrated and the outgrowth after their ancestors crossed over to Taiwan to wit how to earn a living, the development and vicissitudes of their phyle, the interaction between local residents, etc. Eventually, from the cultural viewpoint such as architecture and religion, we will probe into the localization of the Jiang family in Nanxi and find out whether the Hakka culture there is retained in some way or vanishes entirely.

      目錄:

      第一章 緒論…………………………………………………………………1
      第一節 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………1
      第二節 相關研究與文獻回顧………………………………………………3
      第三節 名詞解釋……………………………………………………………11
      第四節 研究方法……………………………………………………………12
      第五節 預期成效……………………………………………………………15
      第六節 研究範圍概況………………………………………………………15
      第二章 從金豐發祥談閩粵江姓源流………………………………………24
      第一節 金豐發祥……………………………………………………………24
      第二節 詔安奠基……………………………………………………………28
      第三節 台灣江姓分佈………………………………………………………29
      第四節 六桂聯芳……………………………………………………………44
      第三章 楠西地區江姓宗族發展概況………………………………………49
      第一節 鹿陶洋江家…………………………………………………………49
      第二節 油車口江家…………………………………………………………54
      第三節 竹圍江家……………………………………………………………60
      第四節 其他江家系統………………………………………………………65
      第四章 江姓宗族文化表徵…………………………………………………67
      第一節 聚落建築防禦設施:竹圍…………………………………………67
      第二節 防禦組織:宋江陣…………………………………………………73
      第四節 客底身份意識認同…………………………………………………99
      第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………101
      第一節 研究結論……………………………………………………………101
      第二節 研究限制……………………………………………………………103
      第三節 後續研究建議………………………………………………………104
      附錄……………………………………………………………………………106
      參考書目………………………………………………………………………111