現在位置 首頁>檢索服務>詳目式

全文限國圖網域開放

博碩士論文: 現代苗栗客家聚落婚禮研究-以苗市、公館、銅鑼為主軸=Research Into Wedding of Modern Miao Li Hakka Village – the Theme of Miao Li City, Gong fuan, and Tong Luo,

  • 作者:鄭秀貞(Shiu-Chen Cheng)(研究生)
  • 其他作者:邱德修(Teh-Shiou Chiu)(指導教授)
  • 語文:中文
  • 出版者:靜宜大學 
  • 系所名稱:中國文學研究所
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2009
  • 畢業學年度:97
  • 頁數:182
      • 關鍵詞:禮俗、銅鑼、公館、婚禮、苗栗、Tong Luo、Gong fuan、Hakka Village、Miao Li City、Wedding
      • 國家:臺灣
      • 城市:苗栗縣
      • 地點:銅鑼鄉

      摘要:

      本文以苗栗客家聚落-苗市、公館、銅鑼為研究區域,並以雪球取樣的方法,從此區域中選取民國三十年迄今結婚的客籍夫妻作為研究對象。依據調查結果,將傳統婚禮整理出一個模式,而且,配合社經背景分析,將婚禮的變遷過程,劃分為四個時期。發現同一時期的婚禮型態較相近,因此,全文以時間為縱軸;以婚禮儀式及器物作橫向探討,並細分為四個時期加以比較,藉以觀察研究區域婚禮變遷的脈絡,且進一步分析其內在文化意涵。
      本文將客家婚禮儀程分為:議婚、定婚、送日子、親迎及轉門五個部分。依據調查結果發現,第一時期(民國三十-四十五年)因政治、社會及經濟都不穩定,婚禮儀節有簡化現象,但仍保有傳統而守舊的思想及意涵。第二時期(民國四十五-六十年)經濟及政治趨於穩定,婚禮仍呈現保守型態,是四個時期中,婚禮儀節最完整的階段。第三時期(民國六十-七十五年)臺灣轉為工商業社會,且經濟起飛及受西方文化影響,此時期的婚禮有大幅改變:婚禮儀節有簡化或合併的現象,對婚姻有較高的自主權,婚禮呈現新舊融合的現象。第四時期(民國七十五-迄今)臺灣邁入高科技發展階段,社會、政治更開放、自由且民主,是個快速變遷的時代,婚禮儀節更形簡化與講求效率,因此,省略為定婚與結婚二個儀程,而且,年輕一代已不了解婚禮儀節的內在意涵。傳統婚禮的儀式及器物有豐富的文化意涵,其意涵多和傳宗接代、婚姻圓滿幸福、長壽富貴及趨吉避凶等民間願望符合。綜觀研究區域的婚禮,從民國三十年代迄今的變遷,和社會、政治;經濟、文化衝擊及個人價值觀等因素多所相關。而且其變遷包含:婚姻以愛情為基礎、自由戀愛取代媒妁之言,婚禮儀節由繁而簡,媒人功能虛有化,使得其內在意涵逐漸消失。苗栗地區的客家婚禮,從繁複的古禮遵循,到現在已發展出另一個求新求簡的模式,且上一代客家長輩逐漸凋零,年輕一代將失去學習與諮詢的對象,傳統婚禮文化可能面臨消失的命運。因此,如何使年輕一代深入瞭解客家傳統文化的深刻意涵,在新時代中找到新的平衡點,乃是未來值得思考與努力的方向。
      The paper has been researched into Miao Li Hakka villages, taking Miao Li City, Gong Guan, and Tong Luo as the searching areas, together with the method of the snowball sampling, taking the Hakka couples, who have got married since the 30th year of the Republic Era, from the areas as the research models. In accordance with the examination, the traditional wedding is coordinated to a simple pattern, and according to the background of society and economy, the changes of the wedding are divided into four periods, found that the wedding types are similar in the same period. Thus, the paper takes these four periods closely to compare with, time element as the down side, across the wedding rituals and objects in order to see how the weddings transfer in different regions, and moreover, analyze the internal culture itself.
      The research sorts the wedding procedures of Hakka by five parts, which are (1) agreement on wedding, (2) engagement, (3) defining dates (to go to the newly-wedded woman’s home to inform the dates and talk over all the details on the wedding day by the matchmaker), (4) completing a wedding ceremony (to go to meet one''s bride at her home before escorting her back to one''s own home for the wedding), (5) returning the bride’s home (which is the first time that the bride would go back to her own home to visit family and relatives).
      As far as the survey’s concerned, it shows four varied results as follows: (1) on the first stage (the 30th – 45th year of the Republic Era), because of the unstable situation on politics, society, and economy, the wedding rituals turned out to be simplified, but still maintained the ideas and meanings of tradition and conservatism. (2) On the second stage (the 45th – 60th year of the Republic Era), although the politics and economy were getting steady, the wedding was preserved to be conservative yet the most completed among the four periods. On the third stage (the 60th – 75th year of the Republic Era), Taiwanese society became industrial and commercialized, and plus business boomed along with the influence by western culture, the wedding had been greatly changed, which presented a combination of the new-old phenomenon. On the fourth stage (the 75th year of the Republic Era till now), Taiwan has been transformed into a highly technology-developed status, and people are open to accept the brand new, rapidly-changed era—freedom and democracy in which the wedding has been much more simple and efficient; therefore, people often skip the first and second wedding procedures, not to mention that the young generation know less about the internal meaning of a wedding.
      The traditional wedding rituals and objects contain the abundant cultures, complete with having a son to carry on the family name, marriage happiness, longevity and wealth, pursuing fortune, avoiding evil and so on. To make a comprehensive survey of the area weddings, the society, politics, economy, culture shock, and personal values have been related to the changes from the 30th year of the Republic Era to now. Plus, marriage is based on affection instead of the words of a matchmaker. The wedding procedures become a complication-to- simplification evolution, gradually vanishing the content inside itself.
      The Hakka weddings in Miao Li region have been flourished a fresh-yet-simple pattern, but due to the fact that the older generation has been withering away, the young generation will no longer have the opportunities to consult from the older one and most seriously, the traditional wedding culture shall hardly be seen after all. For that reason, how to enhance the young generation to promote and understand profoundly about the Hakka traditional culture is the way they have to think about and the efforts they have to make in the future.

      目錄:

      目 錄
      第一章 緒 論 1
      第一節 研究動機與目的 1
      一、 研究動機 1
      二、 研究目的 4
      第二節 研究區域的選取 5
      一、 從歷史環境看研究區域 5
      二、 從地理環境看研究區域 12
      第三節 研究對象與研究方法 17
      一、 研究對象 17
      二、 研究方法 18
      第四節 文獻探討 22
      一、 民間婚嫁習俗 22
      二、 婚禮器物 23
      三、 婚禮禁忌 24
      四、 婚禮諺語 24
      五、 婚禮變遷及檢討 24
      六、 客家婚禮 25
      第二章 苗栗縣客家聚落傳統婚禮及社經背景分析 30
      第一節 原鄉地區的婚嫁習俗 30
      一、 提親 31
      二、 議婚 33
      三、 定婚 35
      四、 送日子 38
      五、 完婚 38
      第二節 苗栗地區的客家婚禮 48
      一、 議婚 48
      二、 定婚 55
      三、 結婚 60
      第三節 社會經濟背景分析 75
      一、 四個時期的社會經濟背景分析 75
      二、 苗栗地區行業分佈之變遷 80
      第三章 各時期婚禮儀節異同之比較 82
      第一節 議婚 82
      一、 議婚儀式之比較 82
      第二節 定婚 88
      一、 定婚儀式之比較 88
      二、 定婚器物的比較 92
      第三節 送日子 98
      第四節 親迎 100
      一、 男方親迎前的準備工作 100
      二、 女方親迎前的準備工作 104
      三、 嫁妝物品 107
      四、 親迎的儀式 111
      五、 親迎後的禮俗 119
      第四章 婚禮儀式與器物及其文化意涵探討 125
      第一節 現代苗栗客家聚落婚禮的由來及演變 125
      一、 婚前禮 125
      二、 正婚禮 132
      三、 婚後禮 136
      第二節 現代苗栗客家婚禮儀式的文化意涵 139
      一、 議婚 139
      二、 定婚儀程的文化意涵 142
      三、 結婚 143
      第三節 婚禮器物的象徵意義 153
      一、 「祈子」的象徵意義 153
      二、 「避邪除煞」的象徵意義 156
      三、 「敬重尊長」的象徵意義 157
      四、 「夫婦和合」婚姻美滿的象徵意義 159
      參考文獻 169
      附 錄 177
      附錄一 訪談內容摘要 177
      附錄二 苗栗客家婚禮問卷 178