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博碩士論文: 客家話顎化擦音的聲學研究

  • 作者:鄧雅琳
  • 語文:英文
  • 系所名稱:高雄師範大學 英語學系
  • 學位類別:碩士
  • 出版日期:2007
  • 畢業學年度:95
  • 頁數:189
    • 主題:其他-其他
    • 關鍵詞:擦音長度、LPC頻率、頻率變化型態、語音分析軟體

      摘要:

      幾年來,處於模糊地帶的四縣/ ts, ts’, s /、/ t, t’, /、海陸/ t,

      目錄:

      TABLE OF CONTENTS
      Table of Contents …………………………………………………………… i
      Chinese Abstract …………………………………………………………… iv
      English Abstract …………………………………………………………… vi
      Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………… viii

      CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
      1.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………... 1
      1.1 Background………………………………………………………………... 1
      1.1.1 Dialects in Hakka language……………………..……………… 2
      1.2 Motivation…………………………………………………………………. 3
      1.3 Statements of Problems…………………………………………………… 6
      1.4 Purpose of the study………………………………………………………. 7
      1.5 Research Questions……………………………………………………….. 8
      1.6 Significance of the study………………………………………………….. 9
      1.7 Limitation of the study…………………………………………………….. 9
      1.8 Definition of terms………………………………………………………… 10

      CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
      2.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 12
      2.1 Hakka Dictionaries………………………………………………………... 13
      2.2 The acoustic analysis of speech…………………………………………… 16
      2.3 Acoustic properties………………………………………………………... 19
      2.3.1 The Acoustic Phonetic of Frequency……………………………… 21
      2.3.2 The Properties of Fricatives and Affricatives……………………... 22
      2.3.2.1 Properties of Fricatives………………………………. 22
      2.3.2.2 Properties of Affricatives…………………………….. 36
      2.3.3 The Properties of Vowel /i/ and the Semi-vowel /j/……………….. 37
      2.3.4 Palatalized Fricatives……………………………………………... 38
      2.3.4.1 Lexical Representation and Phonetic Representation 38
      2.3.4.2 The Properties of Palatalized Fricatives……………... 39
      2.4 Hakka……………………………………………………………..………. 40
      2.4.1 The Distribution of Seven Hakka Dialects……………………..... 41

      CHAPTER 3: METHOD AND PROCEDURE
      3.0 Introduction………………………………………………………………… 42
      3.1 Subjects…………………….………………………………………………. 42
      3.1.1 Sixian Subjects…………….…………………………….…………. 42
      3.1.2 Hailu Subjects…………………………….……..…….………… 43
      3.1.3 Raoping Subjects…………………….……...…………………… 43
      3.1.4 Zhaoan Subjects……………………….………………………… 43
      3.1.5 Dongshi Subjects…………………………..............…………… 44
      3.1.6 Sihai Subjects…………………………….………..…..……… 44
      3.1.7 Mandarin Chinese Subject………………………….…………… 45
      3.2 Reading materials……………………….……………………..………… 45
      3.3 Instruments………………………….……………………………………. 46
      3.3.1 Computer………………………….……………………………… 47
      3.3.2 Tape recorder and Recording Tapes……………………………… 48
      3.3.3 Transmission wire………………………………………………… 49
      3.3.4 Praat……………………………………………………………… 50
      3.4 Procedure………………………………………………………………… 52
      3.4.1 Flow chart………………………………………………………... 54

      CHAPTER 4: FRIRCTION DURATION
      4.0 Introduction………………………………………………………….…… 55
      4.1 Affricate Frication Duration………………………………………............. 56
      4. 1.1 /ts/, /t/, and /t/ in Mandarin Chinese….….………………….. 57
      4. 1.2 Mandarin /t/, Sixian /t/, and Hailu / t/……………………… 62
      4. 1.3 Sixian/t/, Sihai /t/, and Hailu /t/……………………………. 68
      4. 1.4 /t/ in Hailu, Sihai, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi………….. 70
      4.2 Aspirate Affricate Frication Duration……………………………………... 72
      4.2.1 /ts’/, /t’/, and /t’/ in Mandarin Chinese……………………… 72
      4.2.2 Mandarin /t’/, Sixian /t’/, and Hailu / t’/…………………… 78
      4.2.3 Sixian/ t’/, Sihai /t’/, and Hailu /t’/………………………… 85
      4.2.4 /t’/ in Hailu, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi…………….….. 87
      4.3 Fricative Frication Duration……………………………………................. 88
      4.3.1 /s/, //, and // in Mandarin Chinese…………………………... 89
      4.3.2 Mandarin //, Sixian //, and Hailu //………………………… 94
      4.3.3 Sixian//, Sihai //, and Hailu //……………………………… 100
      4.3.4 // in Hailu, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi……….................. 102

      CHAPTER 5: LPC RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
      5.1 LPC Analysis……………………………………………………………… 104
      5.2 Affricate LPC Peak………………………………………………………... 105
      5.2.1 /ts/, /t/, and /t/ in Mandarin Chinese.……………………………. 106
      5.2.2 Mandarin /t/, Sixian /t/, and Hailu /t/…………………………... 108
      5.2.3 Sixian/t/, Sihai /t/, and Hailu /t/………………………….…….. 112
      5.2.4 /t/ in Hailu, Sihai, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi……………… 115
      5.3 Aspirate Affricate LPC Peak…………………………………………….… 118
      5.3.1 /ts’/, /t’/, and /t’/ in Mandarin Chinese……………………….. 118
      5.3.2 Mandarin /t’/, Sixian /t’/, and Hailu / t’/…………………….. 120
      5.3.3 Sixian/ t’/, Sihai /t’/, and Hailu /t’/………………………….. 124
      5.3.4 /t’/ in Hailu, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi…………….…… 127
      5.4 Fricative LPC Peak………………………………………………………... 129
      5.4.1 /s/, //, and // in Mandarin Chinese……………………………. 130
      5.4.2 Mandarin //, Sixian //, and Hailu //………………………….. 132
      5.4.3 Sixian//, Sihai //, and Hailu //………………………..……… 135
      5.4.4 // in Hailu, Ngiaupin, Zhaoan, and Dongshi…………………… 138

      CHAPTER 6: PREVOCALIC
      6.0 Prevocalic………………..………………………………………………… 141
      6.1 Mandarin sounds…………………………………………………….. 143
      6.2 Sixian sounds………...……………………………………………… 154
      6.3 Hailu sounds…………………………………………………………. 162

      CHAPTER 7: CONCLUSION
      7.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………….. 171
      7.1 Major Findings…………………………………………………………….. 171
      7.1.1 Frication duration………………………………………………….. 171
      7.1.2 LPC Analysis…………………………………………………….... 173
      7.1.3 The answers of the Research Questions………………………….. 174
      7.2 Contributions of the Study……………………………………………….. 179
      7.3 Suggestion for Further Studies…………………………………………... 180


      APPENDIX A …………………………………………………………………….181
      APPENDIX B……………………………………………………………………. 185
      Reference …………………………………………………………………………...188